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532 THE LEADER.; [No. 474, April 23, 185...
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protest against the duplicity and sangui...
Mill On Political Sciexce. ' ^Skcojtd Ar...
of restraints on the actions of others , is to go back to the remotest suggestions of barbarism , and wholly to ignore most of the facts of modern society . According to Mr . Mill , man can only be happy by making 1 War on man ; an assumption , equally opposed to the general beneficence which pervades creation , and to the particular facts of our social , life . To find such an assumption at the basis of Mr . Mill's present superstructure is the more
sarily falls into inconsistency . His book has excited so much attention ; and the subject is intrinsically " so important , that it is unfortunate he has not been more successful . The spirit qf inquiry , however , ¦ which he'has excited , not satisfied by his conclusions , will stimulate the investigations 6 f others , and his work will , in this respect , be eminently useful .
astonishing , because his great reputation is chiefly derived from his writings on political economy . He knows , therefore , that this science has demonstrated by facts— -that " self-love and social are the same , " that the desires and impulses of individuals ¦ which prompt them , to seek welfare are the parents of all social good ; that restrictions and restraints , such as he says are necessary to make life valuable , have been in every case , where they could be brought to the test of material facts ,
proved to be sources of evil . If it were otherwise , as Mr . Mill assumes , society could not exist . Art , skill , politics , could not redress so faulty a contri-. vance ; and society , instead of being a homogeneous whole , as combined production by division of labour demonstrates it to be , would be a mere aggregation of conflicting atoms , destroying themselves by tlicir own friction . Mr . Mill cannot be ignorant of M . Bastiat ' s theory , which justly resolves the entire production of wealth , including subsistence and every comfort and luxury , into the mutual services of individuals ; and unanswerably proves that perfect freedom is the means of having these services performed in the best inanner . Instead of men beiner unable
to live together without the enforcement of restraints on one another , other than those taught by facts and imposed by collective opinion , even to live they must help one another ; and the superiority of free over slave labour , in providing for the well-being of all , teaches that the efficiency of the help is proportiona te to the absence of restraints . On Mr . Mill ' s theory , the creation of society is an error to be redressed by the sword of the executioner and the faggot of the Inquisitor ; for Mr . Mill has the merit of showing very distinctly that all the persecutors and exterminators of individuals in olden times sincerely believed that they were
only enforcing , for their own and the public advantage , wholesome restraints on the actions of others . Quite logically from this assumption , Mr . Mill is led to say—justifying every hot-brained enthusiast , from Mahomet to Sir Culling Eardley , and justifying even the slave trade and slavery—• ' Despotism is a legitimate mode of government in dealing with barbarians , provided the end be their improvement , and the means justified by actually effecting that end . " All conquerors—the English in India , at this time , and the French in Algeria—consider the people they are there dealing with to be barbarians , and affirm that the end of their
improvement is effected by enforced submission . The proselyte makers are in . the same category ; they believe that by an enforced conversion- —and they demand that political power should be exerted to attain this end : —the barbarians will be improved and served . In defence , too , of the slave trade , it was alleged that the benighted Africans carried off to the continent or islands of America were converted and improved , civilised and saved . For people who have not reached our condition of " free and equal discussion , " there is nothing , Mr . Mill says , but implicit obedience to an Akbor or a Charlemagne . It is only necessary , therefore , to contimie in Franco and Italy the suppression of discussion to justify the usurpations of the Emperor and the Kaiser . There is no mode of conquest or of government which Mi * . Mill ' s anti-social principle
of the necessity of restraint , to make life worth having , will not justify . This necessity always is as a matter of fact , and nuist be in principle always ascertained by those who imposb the restraint , and they never are taught that the end they seek is not obtained till they and their restraints aro sot aside by violence . We do not complain of Mr . Mill that ho goes too far , but that ho goes astray , and wonders into crooked patliet . Thus , in spito of tho principle wo havo quoted , nnthtfoo consequences plainly deduced froin ib , ho says , more than once , " compulsion is not admissible as tho means to promote the good of individuals . " It is not mlmisaiWe , therefore , to make barbarians civilised ? it is not admissible to moke an ill-doing man do well ; and Mr . Mill , by starting from an error , neoes-
532 The Leader.; [No. 474, April 23, 185...
532 THE LEADER . ; [ No . 474 , April 23 , 1856 .
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Protest Against The Duplicity And Sangui...
protest against the duplicity and sanguinary am bition of the Emperor , of the existence of which it is believed to be the most convincing proof . The little heed which English statesmen showed to conceal or gloze over the despicable intrigues of Russia to counteract the efforts of England for peace has filled the French servants of the Czar here with rage . The writer of the first Paris letter in today s Nbrd , who , if it be not M . Mocquard ( Chef fa Cabinet de PEmpereur ) is his amanuensis , goes to the length of contradicting the Earl of Derby , and asserts that Lord Cowley had not succeeded in his mission to Vienna , and that lie had no chance of doing so . From this insolent contradiction may be judged how great is the annoyance both of the false friend and insiduous foe at finding the masks torn from their faces . '
The future policy of England—an armed neutrality—as shadowed forth by Lord Derby , has seriously damaged the plans and projects of the war party . It may , perhaps , be in the recollection of your readers that , weeks ago , I ventured to suggest this measure , knowing what a desperate blow it would be to the ambitious perturbators of the public : for , by taking up this position , England obeys the instincts of her people , who have no love for any of the despotic forces of the Continent . She will reserve her forces , biding her time , to strike the blow which shall shiver the hideous tyrannies , temporal and spiritual , of Curope , and bring down just
retribution upon that power which has provoked the war . She will become the head of the . great country of smaller States—their right arm and brain . One by one , will they gather round her for aid and mutual support in upholding the principles of international law , until a great and mighty federation be formed— an aggregate of small Towers — more powerful than even France and Russia combined , and which will be able to impose order and honesty upon the great Powers . From the league of armed neutrals will ultimately come the ponce of Europe , and that retribution to the disturbers which' will be Jill the more terrible the longer it is delayed .
riu : PARATi <» 'S ron avak . Perhaps the most significant sign of the intention of the French Government is to be found in an advertisement in the Moniteur . The supply of Newcastle coal to Toulon , which was originally fixed at 4 , 000 tons , is tp be doubled—raised to 8 , 000 tons before next autumn . To-night two divisions . of the army of Paris leave for Lyons on their way to the Sardinian frontier . The Imperial Guard is . to be raised to 60 , 000 men ; and among tho additions are to be two regiments of grenadiers , two regiments of light infantry , and a regiment of native Algerians , or Arabs , to form the Mamalukes of the Guard , as number of the
FRANCE . Paris , Thursday , G % p . m . THE WAR PANIC . It is quite possible—nay probable , if I may credit the rumours that circulate—that before this letter reaches the hands of your readers the dread thundercloud of war , that has so long lowered over Europe , will have burst , and rained fire and blood upon the fairest portion of the Continent—to cease no man can tell when . The Moniteur of this morning announces , with an ostentation that is held to conceal a hidden and fixed determination , that the French Government , together with those of Russia and Prussia , have accepted the propositions of her Britannic Majesty ' s Ministers to effect , prior to the meeting of Congress , a general and . simultaneous disarmament;—to regulate this disarmament by a military commission , composed of gentlemen to bo nominated , one by each of the five great Powers , and ?
the sixth by Sardinia ; to open Congress and proceed to the discussion of political questions so soon as the commission has been formed and has commenced its work ; and to invite the representatives of Italian States to assist at the Congress , precisely as was the case at the Congress at Lay-bac . lv in 1821 . In face of this announcement , which , if it be made without arriere penste , ought to . fortify public confidence in the maintenance of peace , there are abroad stronger feelings than ever of apprehensions and dismay . At the Bourse to-day there was a universal panic—the sellers being the great bankers and capitalists of Paris . A fall of 1 franc 50 cents in the Rentes , which is upwards of 2 ppr cent ., greeted the official announcement of a general disarmament , and men , amazed , asked , " What can it mean ?"
The answer is very simple , though not avowed ; or if the avowal be made . 'it is with bated breath , and only to sure friends . The French people have lost all confidence in the sincerity of their Government . They do not believe the Emperor means anything but war ; for , albeit he completed his fifty-first year yesterday , and is beginning to feel the weight of years as heavily as the burden of empire , he is still possessed of the delusion that he can emulate the military glories of bis uncle . Rumours are , of course , prevalent to excuse this astonishing change in the value of public
securities . Late last night it was said the British Cabinet had . r e signed . Now , it is an insurrection in Turin , an arrogant ultimatum addressed by Austria to Sardinia which loaves no issue consonant with honour save an appeal to arms . The true motive of the panic will , I believe , be found in the sudden decision of the Emperor to take a more threatening position on the German and Sardinian frontiers ; and this resolve proceeds from annoyance and vexation ' at the speech of Lord Malmesbury , in particular , and tho British Parliament in general .
The English Minister for Foreign Affairs has had the honour of enjoying the personal friendship and intimacy , so far as any man pan do so , of tho French Emperor . Lord Malmcsbury , besides bis kindly feelings and admiration for his Imperial friend , had implicit confidence in his perfect loyalty and good faith , and I ami assured the most unfair advantage ) has been taken of this confidence . It can be no roproach to Lord Malmesbury that he has been deceived and cajoled . Tho shame is not his , although the deception of which he has been tho victim may not redound to bis credit for perspicacity . When the history of these negotiations is written , thcro will bo found on one side a frankness by no moans * diplomatic , and a reliance upon solemn assurances
whioh will testify how nice is tho sense of honour among English gentlemen , which forbids thorn to doubt that of another , On tho other sido there will be found duplioity , effrontery , and falsehood , the meanest subterfuges ami tho most ignoble misrepresentations . That tho Earl of MiUmosbury is now conscious of the intriguo by which ho has boon duped , and that ho has tho conviction of having been tho victim of mloplacod confidence , is gonerally believed , nnd honce tlio very commendable warmth of his speech in the Houao of Lords . Tho address of tho Foreign Sourotary waa published in extunso in this morning ' s Moniteur , and other papers , and 1 ms been road with more than ordinary interest . It is regarded as on honourable
under the first Napoleon . The Chasseurs de Vincennes ( rifles ) is to be increased by ten battalions—making thirty in till ; which will make an addition to the effective force otl 2 , 000 men . Two new regiments of African rifles are to be raised in Constantino . General Bourbake , who commanded the 7 th military division stationed at Besaneon . was to be in Lyons yesterday to take the command of a division , composed of two brigades under the command of Generals Trochu and Ducros . The first brigade was to consist of the 18 th Rifles , the lltli and 14 th of the line ; the second of the 46 th ana 5 » th line , besides another not decided on . l » o 7 tn division of the army of Lyons—that is to say , tno one which is under orders ( secret ) for Italy , )? to bo * /« , i .. n jai- ... I ¦ n *»» i « li » -w-t iii rrnrrisnil flG 1 ¦ •<¦
cojnnoseci oi me uain uim o / » «»» v »« e > - * , Toulon ; the 23 rd and 78 th light infantry in garrison at Marseilles , which have received onlors to tprm ft 4 th battalion , and enter on active service , ooswosa regiment of Zouaves , on tho road from Algiers . The 7 th Hussars have loft Terascon for Lyons , ana several cavalry regiments arc on tho way » ° ™ Africa . Several companios of the military train havo already arrived , besides the l' 2 lh regiment or Artillery and tho 05 th lino infantry- . ^ ?™ Renault ' s division , after being a few days in camp , at Sathomiy , left on tho 19 tli for Culoz , wlier 0 P ™" visions aro made for the reception of u strong torcc . This division is to bo ropluced in the e . ynp o Sathonay by tli . o oth division on tho road iroro Africa . Fivo regiments of infantry , ami one w Zouaves , havo been concentrated in tho vor , ftna sunnllos are ordered right and left—among otl ow , *¦
00 , 000 pairs of shoos from MursoHlos alone . « 81 st Regiment of tho lino was brought -U > bv ° * K ! train from ltoucn last night , and sent oil ' » ' eu ' ntely by the Lyons line to Marseilles for shipment to Algiers . The Dtli lino infantry nwl ptli hom Chasseurs , aro also under orders ior Africa t bu «» i 9 probable all will stop on the road a Lyons ? b » that for Africa wo must read Italy . Tho Ut . Hogl mont of tlio foreign logion is to garrison A ! J ° *» y and . tho 08 th- Hno is to loavo Basted << ' *™ S The two rugimonts of Carabineers , which h «* « JJJ ? - In garrison at Vormlllos for tho last cloven jeaw , has loft for Strasbourg and MullmuBon . f ° "JJJ this dlRnml category , I may montlon that a VM > WW Council was hold yostorduy and ouoihor to-cuvy .
Leader (1850-1860), April 23, 1859, page 20, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse2.kdl.kcl.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/cld_23041859/page/20/