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TELE ARCTIC EXPEDITION . COURT 8-MAETIAL ON THE COMMANDERS . Courts-martial have been sitting at Sheerness for the trial of the officers commanding the different ships in the Arctic expedition . The first case was that of Captain M'Clure , of the Investigator , for having abandoned that ship ; and the next that of Captain Kellett , for the abandonment of the Resolute , and then followed the trial of Commander Richards , fcr the loss of the Assistance and Pioneer . The proceedings were summary enough , all the officers simply pleading and producing the written orders of Sir Edward Belcher , the commander-irw chief . The Sentences on each were the same , no blame whatever was attributed to them , and as they actedmnder the orders of their superior officer , they were " fully and honourably" acquitted , and their swords returned to them with , complimentary addresses from the President .
The trial of Sir Edward Belcher was then proceeded with , and extended to some length . He was charged with , the whole responsibility of the abandonment of the ships . His defence rested on the ground that lie had acted to the best of his judgment tinder the circumstances , and he showed -that his instructions from the Admiralty gave him the fullest latitude to act as he should deem most advisable . Hewas also acquitted , "but not by any means in so satisfactory a manner as his subordinate officers . The sentence ran thus : — -
The Court is of opinion that the abandonment of her Majesty ' s ship Investi gator was directed by Captain Kellett , who - was justified in giving such order . The Court is further of opinion that , from the great confidence reposed in Captain . Sir E . Belcher by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty , and the ample discretionary powers given 4 o him , he was authorised and did not act beyond his orders in abandoning her Majesty ' s ship Assistance smd her tender Pioneer , or , In directing the abandonm ent of her Majesty ' s ship Eesolute and her tender Intrepid ; although , if circumstances had permitted , it would have been advisable that he should have consulted with Captain Kellett previously . And the Court doth adjudge the said Captain Sir E . Belcher to be acquitted , and he is hereby acquitted accordingly . " The word "honourably" was not used , and his sword was returned to Sir Edward Belcher in silence .
THE LATE SAMUEL , PHILLIPS . Samuel Phiixips , one of the cleverest and most successful writers of the day , died at Brighton on Saturday last , in his 4 oth year . He had for some years suffered from an affection of the chest , which jbad more than once been accompanied with spitting of blood . A sudden attack of hemorrhage came on in the evening of Friday , and though checked by prompt medical aid and every appliance of skill , it returned . with accumulated violence , and in a fewminutes he sank exhausted . He was . the son of a London tradesman , who died , leaving his business , ¦ which was unfortunately not a flourishing one , to be
managed by his two sons , who were then mere boys . Samuel had no relish for the counter , and had already , shown signs of a talent for the stage , having , ¦ when twelve years old , played Richard III ., at Covent Garden , for the benefit of Mr , Isaacs , father of the popular singer . Ho was considered by his friends a sort of juvenile prodigy . His feeling for tho stage never faded ; the theatre was his greatest amusement , especially tho French stage , and he constantly spoke in the highest terms of admiration of Lomaitre , BoufFc , and Rachel . Regnier was his intimate friend .
His schoolboy days were passed at London University Collcgo School . Though his family wore Jews , he was induced to think of the English Church as a profession , and the means were found for entering him ns a student at Sidney Sussex College , Cambridge . Here , however , he Beema to have failed in those qualities of hard study indispensable to a scholar ' success , and ho left Cambridge without taking his degree , He afterwards wont to Germany , whore lie learnt the language , and acquainted liimsolf with tho writings of tho German philosophy . Subsequently ho received from tho University of Gottingcn tho complimentary degree of Doctor of Philosophy .
Returning to London ho Boon found himself involved in all tho pressing cares of married life , and turned to literature for support . His first essays appeared in BlachwooiL His story of " Cnlob Stukely " camo out in Fob ., 18-12 , and ho contributed some Bhor tor pieces ; amongst tlicni , "We ' re all Low Peoplo there , " all of which have sinca buen published in u separate foxm by Routlcdgo . Mis first political writing was in tho articles for tho Morning Herald , * n advocacy of tho Tory party , to which journal ho contributed regularly . At tho eame time , ho endeavoured to increase his political influence by becoming a proprietor of the John Bull newspaper . He nod reached the climax of political Journalism when tao Derby party camo to povrar , and looked to his
intimate associate , the Chancellor of the Exchequer , for substantial acknowledgment of his good services to the party : to these , however , the official ear was insensible , and he was not included even in the batch of L . L . D . ' s . This wound never healed ; and Phillips , having at last gained his own powerful point of attack at the head of the literary columns of the Times , opened a perfect battery of revenge , in that memorable article upon Disraeli—an article written with all his peculiar force of diction , and at the same time with all the unrelenting bitterness of an enemy made out of a friend . The notorious " suppressed pamphlet" " appeared about the same time ( Feb ., 1854 ) in the Times , and without the . italics .
The literary notices by Mr . Phillips have been published in two volumes in Murray ' s series of " Reading for the Rail , " called " Essays from the Times . " The Crystal Palace is indebted to Mr . Phillips for everything in the way of literature that ; has emanated from it . The small hand-books were entirely suggested by him , and had it not been for his untiring energy and determination , the place must have opened without any sort of guide or catalogue . The portrait gallery was also designed and carried out by him , and his book of biographies , written in a remarkable style of terseness and apt description of character , is really a valuable library book .
Mr . Phillips was a remarkable instance of a man attaining a very influential literary position , and a handsome money independence , without possessing a profound knowledgeof the subjects upoii which he wrote-r—to this , indeed , he never pretended ; His literary capital was small , but his- credit was firstrate , and his courage and enterprise undaunted . He was eminently a writer for the Times . Whatever he said and did , was with an emphasis . He was of a fiery temperament , and often had to regret the loss of friends by sharp and hasty words ; but he was sensitive , and alive to generous promptings , and had a great sympathy for poor clever men . -He loved praise , and was very impatient of blame . To the writer of this , he l a tely said-,., in . reference-to an article in which the Leader expressed their opposition to his views : — "I don't mind what the Leader says of me , they always speak like gentlemen . "
VISIT OF THE EMPEROR AND EMPRESS OF THE FRENCH TO ENGLAND . It is stated -with some distinctness by tho Paris correspondent of the Morning Chronicle that the Emperor and Empress of tlie French will pay a visit to the Queen in the month of . ^ November , and that her Majesty will return the visit in May next , and witness tho opening of tho French Exhibition .
RESUSCITATION OF POLAND . A p amphlet lias recently appeared in Paris , entitled Lettre a VEmpercur surla Question d'Orient . It boldly and ably advocates the resuscitation of Poland as the best bulwark against Russian aggression in Europe . After showing that Finland , Sweden , and the Danubian Provinces are not adapted to the purpose of holding Russia in check , it is stated that at the end of the struggle now entered on in Kurope , recourse will be had to the only real force that can be disposed of against Russia independently of military means , and that must be nit appeal to the devotednoss and patriotism of tho Poles . It is said
that—In a struggle between right and justice , between Europe menaced and Russia menacing , there is but one alternative possible ; cither Poland will be for Europe , or sbo will bo nfrainst her ; to ask her for neutrality , for complete inaction , \ a to ask what is impossible . I'lncort , ns she is , between two belligerent parties , and exposed to become probably tho tlieatro of war , she cannot ; remain indifferent ; « ho must bo cither friend or ononiy . Consequently , there aro two imminent dangors which it i « alike csscntiail to conjure away—lHt , that Poland , impatient of hqr yoke , . shall not rise too soon ; and 2 nclly , lest at tho voico of Europe , she may not wish to rise at . nil . Doign , ttir « , to tako tho matter into consideration , and you will perceive that tlieso two hypotheses aro equally admissible . At a moment wluiii all moil's minds aro
ngltiitcu by a question of mieh marked interest , it is natural that tho patriotic sentiment , ho gronily developed in Poland , should lio aroused amongst all uIawcs with a now ardour \ muii whlnpmr to each other their hopos , and rojoico in Rucnit at tho rovornoH of tho HuH , siun armies . A feeling of confidence in the futuro in the watchword whioli ih ciri'iilntlnfi us by vnchantmont throughout thu whole oxtoit of the l ' olisli territory ; in mi aro wnitiux for tho uppoaruueo of tUo colours of I'Ynncu and Kn ^ liim ! on tho noil of the country to suluto thoui with thu old ontliuHiuum which bus given birth to mo many prodigies ; thoHO colours siro awaited , for It , in a mmtiuicnt so din-Homlnatcd amcmyHt thu ihuhsum , that ItuMtlu cannot bu coiu | uor « l except in attacking her in I ' oiund , that , tin omi doubts tlmt tho decisive blow . s will bo yiven on thai hIiIo .
Thoro la dnngor in not considering Poland from that point of view , aia sho might , in revenue for being hold at a distance by Europe , throw horseli
•R.Pqn^Citation' Of Poland
into the arms of Russia , and complicate a situation in which she will be called on , sooner or later , to play a part . The second danger which I have pointed out to your Majesty has also its probable side . Poland , completely disarmed and occupied by a numerous army , could not make an effort , except on conditions so completely disadvantageous that every insurrection would , first of all , have against it the very numerous class of persons whose interests are menaced . But , if Russia , assuming the initiative , should offer such concessions and guarantees as might satisfy the national sentiment of all classes , it would be much to be feared that the whole country , so often deceived in its hopes on the side of the West , would place herself frankly on her side . That
tendeucy of men's minds towards a Sclavonian union is not . of recent date , and continues to manifest itself by numerous symptoms . Panslavism is in Poland -what the conservative party was in France ; under a deceitful appellation it shelters all kinds of egotism and recruits itself with all the adversaries of liberty . That powerful party ^ which every progress and enfranchisement of the masses terrify , prefers the Emperor Nicholas to the invasion of what it calls tho revolutionary doctrines of the West , because it sees in the llussian regime the best safeguard , of its privileges and interests ; possessing the greater portion of the soil , it exercises a very great , influenoe on the masses , and would not be averse to sharing the destinies of Russia , at the price ; of some concessions on her part . It is for Europe to arrest that current of ideas which is in' the inverse sense of the
traditions and sympathies of the country . 5 but- it 13 not by following the course which she has hitherto followed that she will ever succeed in doing so / In fact , in obstinately leaving the name of Poland ; as she does , out of every negotiation , in avoiding to make the slightest allusion to her , in ¦ ¦ fearing to arouse a cause at least as worthy of interest as that of Turkey or of Finland , in refusing the Poles any participation in the contest engaged in , and all hope to those who . should wish to unite their cause to the regular inarch of civilisation against barbarism , she will only discourage good intentions , in place of gathering round ¦ her these which , are doubtful . And yet Poland , thrown into the enemy ' s camp , anight become a grave danger ; for Russia , consolidated by the moral support of a country on which she could not reckon , would become invulnerable to all aggression . In conclusion , the writer
says—France and England lia-ve an incontestable right to raise their voice in this great question , for they'have always protested in favour of Polish nationality , and . assisted with their money . a numerous emigration ; their part is noble and elevated ; easy , because it is not contradictory ; and . generous , because it is disinterested . But there aro other Powers which , after having joined , in the partition of Poland , now find their own security threatened ; they must at length understand that usurpation carries in itself its own chastisement . Their part , it is true , is mo-re difficult , but it is only the more glorious and the mo-re attractive . To make a striking reparation without violence aiiil with goodwill for au act of injustice committed , is to introduce- into the domain of
polities the finest precept of the Gospel , and to inaugurate a new era . . Everything tends towards this result ; the will of men ami tho march of events ; Providenc e even largely contributes to it by protecting in a peculiar manner nationalities which arc only the political work of generations . In fact , tlie German powers , led away into ti false path , and one contrary to their interests , appear to be eternally condemned to undergo tho consequences of their complicity . Providence opens to them an easy issue from this position with glory and honour ; never could a liner opportunity protwiit itself for educing by a dash of tlie pen , tho most untoward souvenirs . Austria , thanks to tho pcv . sonal influence of tlie young sovereign who directs her destinies ,- appears to comprehend it perfectly ; who foeln that an alliance with the Western Powora is » not a huuvy yoko , but
11 Hiilenui udlm .-don to nil tlie priuciplew of light and jiiHtieo ; that tho pludgu which mIic has in hor hund . s in more than milHuiont to compensate amply for what on tha other hand nho might have to give up ; and thut by allowing to exist by hur wide a nationality incessantly aspiring to Hh iudopuiulunco who would only secure her lVoiitiern and return [ jlorioualy " within th < s limits marked <» nt for luir by nature . May jtheouly freehernelf from all thoBo ideiiH of routine * which destroy tho intelligence of tiling , and acquire tlio certainty Unit an independent Poland will novur lie a danger for hor ! PniM . iia , ainlmrriiMMud by thu family tios of hor Hovoreign , iippiHirH to ho more t . oiiuciourt in lior prejudice * , but dynastic intorcntH cannot long prevail nK » in , s l , tlm ovirtont intercut of acuuutry which ' would ourtiUtily iiavo more to guiu both in uxtunt and Hucurily l \ v « mino-dolling of the map of Kuropc .
To Hum up : let . I'oliin'l l » o ni- Im riivolutionury ohm , will lileud thdiiirtnlvufi ii'l" »»« < 'on . ior \ vU . iv « party , oflurhiK ovory diwlnihlo gmininKMi , lint which liadno roiirton for lmii » K ho in < l « , v * «< " < ' *" « " ll ( l " f tri l >] " * ' O 1 K " ocutiipinion . TJiw wn « omUiv <) party , Iriwl l > y udvenuty , will Iki 11 nuidi nioro w > ll < l plcd ^ t ) lor tho repomi of Europe , ilmiiall i'iomi ( iiiluimiio . i "iicl porrtoctUic / UH which drlvu a HTt-iil '""' K " " ' ' * iu * ti (> u t ° t-uo m * J » t iwivoutUt roiw and dotfiioJi'iUo attcuiptu .
October 21 , 1854 . ] THE LEADER . 995
Leader (1850-1860), Oct. 21, 1854, page 995, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse2.kdl.kcl.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct2061/page/11/