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T Ti TV W A R .
SEBASTOPOL . Accounts have reached England from the Crimea down to the 3 rd of October . It appears by the operations of the allied army , that the campaign is treated with due seriousness , and that the preparations for the siege of Sebastopol are combined-with a proper care for resisting any attempts of the Russian forces to relieve the place . By the assistance of marines , seamen , and guns from the fleet , a sufficient force will "be found for * carrying on-the immediate business of the sie » e , while an allied army , of between 60 , 000 and 70 , 000 men , happily supported by at least 6000 cavalry , will be disposable for
opposing any attack on their entrenchments , ox if necessary , for meeting the enemy in the fieiai It would seem as if the quiet attitude of the allied troops was intended to coax the Russians , when they have got together all their boasted reinforcements , into a movement an force , which would end in a pitched battle , and which need not in the least interfere with the operations , at Sevastopol .. A victory , of that kind would-be more decisive than that of Alma , would hasten the fall of Sebastopol , and probably end in the driving the Bussians out of the Crimea . The narrative of events which have occurred since last week we supply from varioiis sources .
On the 28 th of September the Second , Third , and Fourth Divisions of the army -were ordered at once to imove up to the heights about Sebastopol , where they encamped , the First Division remaining at Kadikoi , behind the port of Balaklav-a , for the protection of that important post , while the Light Division rested on the heights above the harbour , which it had occupied before the surrender of tie fort . At the desire of General Brown , however , the Light Division also moved forward on the following day , and now occupies a position in the line of the besieging army . The Engineers and Artillery proceeded at once to land the siege-train , and on the 29 th some of the guns were already dragged up the
heights , [ and temporarily placed in a field about one mile in the rear of the , position occupied by the' troops , Trom this elevated encampment , "which was occupied "by ourtroops without any opposition on the part of the enemy , a view may be obtained of the whole port of Sebastopol , with its harbours , arsenals , ships , and forts lying within a circle of three or four miles , at the feet of the vast armament which already threatens the devoted city . In the military harbour the Russians' had moored a three-d . ecker : so as to direct its iire- up the
ravine -which descends to the arsenal and the docks . Theywere also busily engaged in throwing up works of earth round the south of the town , which sufficiently denotes the absence of any regular line of fortifications or bastions impassable by an enemy until a breach has been made by artillery . On the east of the town , however , and consequently immediately in front of the British lines , a strong horse-shoe redoubt has been constructed , which wo do not find marked in any of the maps now before us , and this will be the point , against which our attack must first bo directed .
The Duke of Cambridge ' s division , consisting of the . Guards and Highland Brigade , remained in the rear of the army near Balaklava until the 2 nd of October , in order to cover the : base of operations from the possibility of an attack * .. Meanwhile , tho roads- and trades through the hilly country south of Khutor Mackenzie , by which the allied armies made their flank , march on Balaklava , have been broken up and put into a state of defence by the British forces . Tho right flftnk of tho army is effectually covered by the dofile loading into tho valley of tho Tchcrnaya , by that stream , and by tho marshy ground about it ; and so satisfied was Lord Raglan on tho 1 at of October of tho strength of this position , that liecaused tho Uirst Division tp advance to the right , of the army , and to take up tho position , it will occupy during the siege .
Tho Valley of Inkcrman is a deep ravine about one mile in breadth , formed by tho stream of tho Tchernaya before it falls into tho western extremity of Sobastopol liarbour ; this valley is , in fact , tho continuation of tao deep inlot by ¦ which tho harbour itself is formed . On tho eastern aide of this valley tho ruin » of Inkorman still retain traces of tho fortifications Greeted by the Greeks or tho Genoese on this position ; and , for tho dofonco of Sebastopol against on attack by land , these heights ought to have boon crowned with strong imttorioH , which would
huvo rendered tho place almost impregnable , flinco they would have onfiliulcd tho whole notation now occupied by tho baaiogisig armies . This precaution appears , however , to have Ijeon neglected . Along tho course of tho viuloy , and pwrallol with , tho stream of the Tohornayo , runs tho aqueduct which supplies tho docks and part of thb town w . itl * : ftpfllt , jY « ter ; and ho abruptly do tho rocks rino ovt ^ tiiArjf t&iOn ^ t } 10 wosturn side , that , on turning t <)^ rW (^* tor /!^^«^ r > Ai » i !» t * lut )( U » ct i » carried through a tuniWlH ^ M ^ tosM ^ t ^ OO ynrda in length . Uathor TOoi ^ tl » jp | ta ' j@b'J (^ ' 4 ! fi ^ fl < raWi of this tunnel , and upon a height Afflbl&j 3 iffi 8 UlmofuCi perpendicularly above tho ^ iB ^^ f WfW H , th « British ( irmy has t « kon up mfg ^^^ C ^ XSm ^ therefore , tho extramo right ¦ « MiS «^* a 8 H » m WW it to protected by a steep
wall of rock , which is inaccessible to the enemy . We presume that the ground thus occupied is beyond the range of any guns which the Russians might be able to mount on the opposite side of the valley , -which is still for the present in their possession . The Trench army occupies the left of our position , and extends to the coast immediately south of ; Sebastopol , where the deep and navigable bays offer the greatest facilities for landing the siege-train and the stores of our allies ; some delay has , nevertheless ? taken place in this operation . On the 3 rd no regular attack had begun on any part of the place , but the booming of heavy guns from the forts of Sebastopol sounded like the prelude to the tremendous struggle which was about to commence , and showed that the enemy was resolved and prepared to offer a strenuous defenoe of tile , place on every side .
Obithe evening of tfie 3 rd October the foflb . w 4 ng oTder oftite = day regulfetathg tJiacpmmencement'of the siege was ^ issued . THe names of the regiments supplying the first detachments at work were not ascertained : —
ORDERS TO THE ARMY BEFORE COMMENCING SIEGE OPERATIONS . "The trenches wall be opened this evening against Sebastopol ; a working party , consisting : of ,. furnished by the —— , will be marched to the engineers ' de " pot at — - p . m ., where they will receive tools and directions from the engineers' officers and sappers , who ¦ will guide them to the works ; they will be without arms and accoutrements . The guard for the protection of the working and ground will consist of —— -, furnished by , and will parade in their camp at — ip . m ., be conducted to their positions , posted , and receive instructions from staff officers who will be assembled for the purpose . . . ' * All the movements of the parties must be , if possible , kept out of view of the place .
" After moving from their last place of assembly , which will be after dark , the utmost silence must be preserved , and the least possible noise of any kind made . The working parties will be arranged in proper order by the engineers , but will not commence work till ordered , after which it must be carried on with the greatest energy . '' The engineers -will be charged with the arrangements , but the officers of the troops must be responsible for the maintenance of order and attention to the directions
given by the engineers , and for the amount of work done ; on diligence and regular conduct of the working parties will depend more rapid and complete success of the enterprise . The -working parties must not quit the works on slight alarms . If the enemy make a sortie , the guard will advance and drive them in , and before they Teach the work , if possible ; should the working party be absolutely obliged to retire , they will take their tools with them , and reform a short distance in rear to return to the work when the sortie is repulsed .
" The guard will be posted in rear of the working party , and near to it , if possible , under cover froih the fire of the place 5 if not , they must lie down in order of battle , with accoutrements on , and each man with his firelock close by him—one party , not less than one-third of the forces absolutely on the alert all through the night , taking it alternately , ready for an immediate rush on the enemy . " A sortie is out and on the works in a very short time , aiid therefore the guard must be in immediate readiness to attack it without hesitation ; nothing is so easily defeated as a sortie if charged without delay . " After the repulse of any sortie , the guard will return -under cover as soon as possible , and resume their position .
" All working parties and guards will bo composed of entire regiments , or parts , and not of detachments made up of different corps . "
ground where the parallel lines will be drawn , and our engineer officers describe the same as most unfavourable being rocky with little earth . ' Ground will be broken at 540 yards from the town . There can be little doubt that , our guns once placed in position , a breach will soon be effected , and then British bayonets will clear the Kussian batteries and entrenchments , but I fear that before they can be brought efficiently to bear -we shall have a heavy loss of life to deplore . That Sebastopol will fall before six days have passed is certain
The ship guns will be worked by sailors ; and abo ut 600 blue jackets , landed from the Agamemnon and Sans-Pareil , encamped last night on shore . Jack anticipates with great glee his participation in the ho nours of the day . Above a thousand marines—and magnificent fellows they-are—have volunteered to storm the breach and last night they were landed and bivouacked near Balafcliwa : Oarts and arabas charged with ammuniitiEor ; shell-cases , and enormous round shot , slowl y transport then * murderous loadsto . the rendezvous or depot of the heavy *
guns—The quay at Balaklava presents an exciting appearance . Strings of soldiers line the shore , passing the cannon-balls from hand to hand , as they are landed from the ships' barge s * The heavy ship 32-pounders are being swung by cranes from the same launches , constructed at Constantinople , which landed our artillery and . cavalry in Kalarhita Bay . As each gun touches the earth , fifty blue-jackets dart forward and drag it up the steep road with the noisy cheers peculiar to Jack ; The gunpowder stores will be landed to-morrow , and five farm-houses on the heights have already been destined . as magazines .
Owing to the fire opened by a Russian battery , rapidly erected for the especial purpose , the British second and fourth divisions retired a few hundred yards to the rear of the position they occupied . Not a sheU told , but it was properly deemed unadvisable to risk the men ' s lives with no advantage to gain . This battery might easily have been silenced , had three or four of our siege guns been brought to bear upon it , but not a shot will be fired until all the cannon are in position . The practice of the Russians was bad , and most of the shells burst in a small quarry about fifty yards in front of the fourth division . The range was about 1800 yards . A few round shot passed over the division , and one fell in the midst of the . 68 th Regiment , but no one was hurt . The men looked upon the whole firing as a spectacle got up for their especial
amusement , and expressed their approbation or , disapproval , according to the merits of the case . If a shell burst within twenty yards of the group , it was hailed with a universal "JJono Johnny ; " but if , on the contrary , the projectile chanced to burst in the air ( as often occurred ) , the men appeared even disappointed . Yesterday afternoon the 4 th division changed places with the 3 rd , who took the van , the regiments composing it being all armed with the Minid rifle , whilst the 4 th . still shouldered the old musket . It is expected that the honour of the assault v / ill fall to the 4 th division , supported by the 3 rd . The other divisions , who have already plucked their laurels , and right gallantly , too ,, at Alma , will act as reserve . Our divisions now occupy the following positions : —Nearly turning the town is the light division ; to the left are the 3 rd and 2 nd divisions 5 slightly to the rear of the 3 rd is posted the 4 th
division . Tho first division lies at Balaklava , between which place and tho remainder of our force are picquctcd the 1 cavalry . The strength of the latter arm has been materially increased by the arrival of tho fourth , fifth , nnd sixth Dragoon regimonts from Yarna . The passage was , unfortunately , very severe , and the horses huvo suffered a great deal , and look very wretched . Tho men appear in good condition , The fourtli regiment , landed from tho Simla , alone lost fourteen horses . Tho French aro still engaged in lumling thoir guns , ft work which scorns to proceed rather slowly . Their Hhips avo anchored in a bay slightly to to the north of Balaklava , near Ghersonoso point . It was originally
intended for our gallant ally to occupy tho extreme right of tho position , but this plan liaa since been altered ,. and the French guns will open to the left of the British . The Turkish division will , I imagine , form tho centre . A Mr . Upton—son , 1 . believe , of Col . Upton , tho constructor of tho SebuHtopol inner harbour—whs tukoix prisoner n day or two ago by our men . Ho occup ied an extensive farm nenr tho town , and imagined himself « t liberty to remain there . Mr . Upton declined at / Irefc giving any information about Scbaotopol , stating himself to bo a naturalised . Russian subject ; but ho ivmh given to understand that , according to English law , 01100 an Englishman ttlways nn Englis 3 imnn . Nothing of
Detailed accounts full of interest aro not wanting . Ono writer states the following : — Before Sebastopol , Oct . 3 . Sinco tho hostile forces havo beon face to face , no time has buon wasted on either sido . Day and night have tho Russians laboured to strengthen tho neglected 3 und fortifications of tho town . Fresh redoubts hayo been thrown up , brcnat-works constructed , and tlio stone towers most oxposcd to our balls havo nearly disappeared in the earth thrown up against them . Tho enemy deserve tho gToateat credit for tho energy they havo shown in tha last few days , but it now leinalna to bo proved if thoir activity ba inspired by determination or by despair . A spirit of dissimulation and falsehood Booms to lurk in
ovorything Russian ; and in tho inner harbour of Scbiistopol , with her guns elevated to command tho plain nbovo , lion » 74 gun-ship , painted to resemble a three-decker . Thin paltry artifice , however luudttbln in a Chinese mandarin , is certainly unworthy of u Russian admiral . On our eiido , at Balaklava , tlio greatest activity 1 ms novor censed to roign . Tho stupendous task of landing tho heavy siego-guna has boon concluded without , accident . L' \> rty-two 8-incjh guns and mortiu-a aro already within a mile of tho positions thoy will occupy . Sixteen others , with Bixty » 2-ponndor » landed from the shijiH , follow up to-day . Thb night ground will bo broken , and probably to-morrow , or the day after , ono hundred and twenty gunti will open thoir lire upon Sobastojiol . MuaU will , oS course , depend upon tho nature of tho
importance could , however , bo gained from him . A uurioiiH adventure happened a low nights wlncis to two of our S « y > i > ors . Wandering : about in tho evening , thoy oomploUily lout their way to tho cmnp , « ntl muldonly found themselves insiilo Sevastopol , A ttentinol olmllongod thum , whereupon tho men , porhapn uiulor tho impression that ; it was good RiiHsiiui , nijilioil , " " Johnny . " Tho consequence was that tlio alnrni vnw given , mid tho men pursued . A volley wiih i ' m-il without oJlliut at tlio two Indiscreet Support * , but one of thom noon received n bayonet in tlio body , and -whs thrown ovor tho wall into tho truiichett hh dead . Th «> ll | . ll < jr though H % htly wounded , escaped . TimvuhIh morning
986 THE LEADER . [ Saturday ,
Leader (1850-1860), Oct. 21, 1854, page 986, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse2.kdl.kcl.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct2061/page/2/