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the man who had been thrown in the ditch concentrated all his energies , and dragged himself into the British camp , from whence lie was conveyed to Bafaklava . It appears he was enabled , from personal experience , to give some valuable details concerning the height and Ireadth of the outer walls . The French are to occupy the hills of Cherson , which command the outworks and fortresses on the south ; the English storm the outworks and detached forts which cover the town and shipping at the end of the harbour .
As yet it seems that the north side is to remain untouched . Directly the fourth division came in sight of the fortress a tremendous fire was opened on it from shot and shell . Our men , however , were completely out of range , yet the enemy kept up their fire almost the whole day , firing some 1000 rounds of ammunition . Sir John IBurgoyne , who was present , seemed delighted . He laughed , and said , " This is what I like ; they show us their range , and waste their ammunition . " A perfect cordon has been established round three parts of the fortifications . I do not believe it is intended to -extend
it further , as it would weaken our line , and expose it to much risk in . case of reinforcements coming up . As it Is , we command all the three roads leading to Sebastopol—that from the south by Balaklava , and that from tiie north from Siinpheropol—with our troops . The Toad from the north-east by Eupatoria runs by the seashore , and not a wheelbarrow could pass along it unless with the consent of our fleet . The latter has been of invaluable service to us throughout this campaign ; in fact , ¦ without the vessels we could have done nothing . They have been firing incessantly at Sebastopol , and , I am infonried , have quite crippled and destroyed an Important fortress which interfered with our siege operations , One of the long-range Lancaster guns has been mounted on the Arrow , and for- the last few days has been trying its range upon the fortress . Its success has exceeded the
sanguine expectations , and there is no doubt that , liad we more of them , we mighty in a fortnight , destroy the whole town , shipping , and fortifications of Sebastopol , without the loss of a man on our side . The first few shots fired by the Arrow at three miles , the gun being too elevated , the ball passed far over the whole place . Afterwards the range was precisely taken , and for three hours shot and shell were thrown into the nearest battery until it was completely destroyed . For the last half lour of the firing it never returned a shot . But this , it
appears , is by no means the sole merit of the gun . It -weakens the resources of Sebastopol still more fatally thaiv by knocking up batteries . Under the natural belief that because their works were in range , the . vessel which fired must be in range also , the Russians returned a tremendous fire , but every shot sank in the sea at about three-quarters of a mile distance from the Arrow . Unless there are incredible stores of ammunition in Sebastopol , such a mode of fighting must soon leave them without a shot .
From some deserters who have come over to us , and from prisoners who have been taken , it appears that Prince Menschikoff succeeded in effecting his escape from Sebastopol with 21 , 000 men ; so that our forced march to intercept him -was , after all , ineffectual , except in so far as it cut off most of his baggage and 30 , 000 / . He has left a garrison of 30 , 000 picked troops in SebaBtopol , with instructions to Bodakoff and Gortschakoff to defend 5 t to the hist stone , as lie will be able to come to its relief . A courier Avas sent on the 15 th instant , to Osten-Sacken , at Odessa , with orders to spare nothing , but move 30 , 000 into the Crimea at all risks , and with all speed . But armies are not moved with a word ; and supposing the message to have reached by this date , it ¦ will bo at least five weeks beforo the Odessa contingent « an arrive , and even then must make such forced marches as will not leave them abovo 15 , 000 effective men .
In Sebastopol they are evidently determined to fight hard . AH tlio sailors have left the ships of war to man the walls , and mo . st of tho heavy guns Lave been taken to assist in the defonco of the outworks . All stores of every kind not absolutely necessary to tho besioged aro Iboing burnt . Tho first purallyl is to be commenced to-night . About 80 siege guns have been landed , and wo shall hoar their music to-morrow . Each night a fresh parallel will bo opened , till within 100 yards , whon tho branching battery will bo placed . A few think that tho actual siege will last throe weeks , but tho majority say that tho whole will bo over in n fortnight .
Tho cholorn , unhappily , still continues its ravages and scoina rather to liavo increased in virulence . There aro two honpit . ulfl established at Balaklava , and oiio of them alone contains 21 ( 5 cholera patients . Several valuable officers have fallen victims to the scourge , and amongst others uro Colonel Ilooy , of this 80 th ; Captain Fruenian , of the Hoot * Greys ; and Uoutouant Grunt , of tho 7 ( Mli , Tho Nov . Mr . Morlcy , chaplain to tho third division , expired a fuw days winco at Balaldava . Tho ( limth of thirt exemplary young miniator i « greatly lamented .
THE BALTIC . All doubts as to the cessation of operations in the Baltic , are now at an end . The large ships of the combined fleets are gradually withdrawing ; and the blockade will be maintained by steam frigates until tlie ice compels them to retire . Much speculation is afloat as to whether anything more « bul < i have bean done , and if it could , why not ? It would be premature to state tho shape which rumour takes with regard to the real agency which has caused tho inactivity of the fleets . A writer , wlio is evidently favourable to Sir Charles Napier , has made a statement in the Times , which is to bo taken , for what it is worth , lie says : —
" It ia said that somo short tiino sinco , inconsequence , perhaps , of tho disappointment which it was thought would bo folt in England and Franco at the combined fleetM not having cipucted more in the North thun tho destruction of liomarsund , a meeting of tho Admirals , Sir Charles Napier and Parseval DesohfineH , and of the superior officers of the fleets , was held , when tho question waa discussed us to the propriety and possibility of attacking and taking Holtiiiigfors and Sweafoorg . The question was examined in all its bearing , and the reports of the officers who had bison sent t *> toko soundings on tho coast were of" owurwe laid before thin naval
committee . 1 am not ; aware of the relative proportions of those who wtiro in favour ami those who wore against the attack of those two plueoH ; but it is certain that , tho decision or the majority was HgahiHt it , and it is affirmed that Sir Cuarhw Napier did not disHcnt from that decision . In answer to those who considered that im attack was both feasible and nccosHury , it wan olwurvod Mint , though there wa « little doubt of HolrtingforH iiiul Swoaborg mooting tlio fnt « of Hoiuarmiml , yot that it . was impossible- for tho allies to Imop those * places , and ( . hut
¦ when after the capture tlioy wore ohtfg '"' to abandon them , a pretext would bo afl ' onlod for tho Emperor of RusHia to announro another victory , « n < I to proclaim to liin HubjuctH that the KnglWi ami Kronoh w « n > boaton out , of the ( Julf of Finland . Ollior roiwons were alleged , but the one I alliujo to wan tlio principal . Tlio minutes of the proceeding worn drawn up I" duo form , and Hignod Uy nil th > o / Hwru prowut . Tho meeting Mien Hoparatod , it having *¦»' ¦""¦ P' ^ viounly agreed that copies ol ' the iiiluiiti' . s mIkmiM ''" '" i witrdod to tlie ICuglbh and French Ciuverniiioiitrt . Owing , however , to bouw oamio ,
house on the top of the hill , which can be approached under cover of some low stone walls . From the windows of the building I had a perfect view of the town and fortifications , which lay beneath me about threequarters of a mile distant . Only nine sail of the line remain in the harbour , five having been sunk across the entrance ; The others , which are principally twodeckers , are moored stem and stern , so as perfectly to command the ground where our trenches must be opened . Fort Peter and Fort Nicholas , the large works which abut upon the" sea , are almost out of range of our guns , and I think we are equall y safe from their annoyance . The places where it seems our attack will be commenced are to the rear and north of the towa , and high up the creek . Here we have opposed to us a long
redan wall , mounting some sixty or seventy guns , and crenelled between the embrasures for musketry ; and on the north extremity is Fort Constantme—a low , blunt , circular mass of masonry , with three tiers of guns , which I imagine will give us some trouble . Tbis latter fort is also commanded by a stone battery of considerable strength , situated on the other side of the harbour , and called by our sailors the " Wasp , " on account of its protected situation and the length and weight of its guns , which are perpetually blazing away at any ship that strays within range . To the north , Fort Constantiiie is again protected by Fort Paul , and . three or four ranges of batteries , covering the Quarantine Harbour . Such are a few of the fortifications which a mere glance enabled me to discover .
Fort Constantine will evidently he the chief point of attack , and to render it ; impregnable ; the enemy are using their utmost efforts . They have about 25 , 000 men at work round it and in front of the redan wall , throwing up intrenched works and stockades of the most formidable kind . As the men work day and night , before our batteries are in position the enemy wiU have doubled their fortifications . While surveying then- preparations : yeste-rday evening , between 8000 and 10 , 000 , fresh soldiers entered Sebastojol from the opposite side . These were , ho doubt , the detached garrisons , which have been collected from different towns in the Crimea . Unless oiir commanders take some measures for stopping these reinforcements , we shall commence the siege to little purpose .
From what we hear from deserters , it seems that the whole of the aristocracy , and , indeed , all the Russian population of South Crimea , have sought refuge hi Sebastopol . < So great is the concourse of inhabitants , that thousands Bleep in the streets each night . As a preliminary operation , we have turned aside the little stream of water which supplied the town , so that the garrison must soon begin to suffer . I expect that as the siege is pressed , the great mass of the inhabitants will "be removed by the north side , and most likely with their escape we would not interfere , as we have no idea of starving out the fortresses , but storming them .
Most of the siege guns have been landed , but they still remain at Balaklava , and it will certainly take some days to get them into position . Fifty heavy guns , with 1000 seamen gunners , and 1000 marines , have also been landed from the fleet . If these guns are to be used as well as our own and the French siege train , w « shall have upwards of 220 heavy guns attacking the pLace at once , exclusive of our field artillery . Two lluasian officers , one of Engineers and oiic of Aatillery , deserted to tis this morning . The information they bring is said to be most valuable , but its nature is kept a strict secret . Tho Vesuvius went in last night and poured five broadsides into Sebastopol before a shot was returned . Tho enemy appeared to be quite taken up with watching tho land side , and it was some minutes before their batteries answorod . The Vesuvius was not touched .
On tho ftrd of October tho ilrst division of Guards and Highlanders took up thoir allotted position , outsido tho fortrosft Tho French occupy Cape Cher-Bon . Then tho fourth , third , . second , and light , divisions , disposed in line , complain the invostinont of tho fortress on tho south mclo .. Here tho troops aro about two thousand yards from tliu walls of the town , but concealed by tho brow of tho bill under winch they aro arranged . Wore the Uurwinnn iiwnrcs of our near neighbourhood they would give uh lively darn and Mights . As it i . s , they luivor ' ueaso throwing nfiut , and Blwll ovor tho hill , but the range is more guuNNWork , ho they do not , do much damago . No one in allowed to ascend to tho brow of tlio hill , « . s tho hiHtant hu in noun he it ) fired at , and tlie troop * exponed to tliu rink of the falling allot . Ana favour , I wiim porinitted , in charge of an officer , to ascend to an abandoned Kusbian
guard-Balaklava is to be general head-quarters during tho siogo . The 93 rd Highlanders stay with tho Marines as rear and baggage guard . Tho 5 th Dragoons landed yesterday . They have gone out to-day with the rest of the cavalry in pursuit of . a strong force of Cossacks which have appeared in our
renr . Tho screw gun-boat Bcaglo joined us on the 80 th ult ., but has net been engaged yot . Both sho and tho Ajtow seem to bo effective boats , but draw 12 feet of water , which is a groat deul . Tho forts and gun-boats have just comunoneed playing at , long ball , but unless they run in much nearer they will do no damage .
from the sea to the Southern Fort . The English will take their position from the Southern Fort to Inkercnan . The French army is divided into two c orps . The third and fourth divisions , under General Forey , will undertake the siege ; the first and second divisions , under General Bosquet , will form the corps of observation and reserve . The English army has made analogous arrangements . ^ These arrangements leave no doubt of the issue of the siege . Deserters say that the Russian army is demoralised . Then- loss at Alma was 8000 . Up to the 10 th , nothing of importance had occurred in the Crimea . According to the Soldaten Freund , Prince Menschikoff left 20 , 000 men in Sebastopol , ' and intrusted the command of the army there to General ChomutofF .
He left on the 1 st for Pcrekop , where three infantry divisions , three cavalry divisions , and eight Cossack regiments had been concentrated . On the 7 th Prince Menschikoff left Perekop with reinforcements , and it was expected that , with the reinforcements advancing from Cherson , the Russian army would , on the 20 th , be 76 , 000 strong . The northern forts of Sebastopol , and not Batksohi-Serai , now form the base of the Russian operations . The engineers thought that the place might be taken about the 18 th . There was a report of a sortie by the garrison , which had been vigourously repulsed .
It is also said that the French Government have received a despatch from General Canrobert , in which he says that the allies occupy an impregnable position , defended by 80 , 000 men and 200 guns , and that they could repel the attack of 200 , 4 ) 00 Russians . A Vienna despatch , published by the Cologne Gazette and the Inddpendance Beige , states that General Qsten-Sacken has entered , the Crimea at the head of 40 , 000 men , and that he . was marching upon Sebastopol . As usual with Vienna despatches , no date is given , and it is not stated where these 40 , 000 men came from . If they were detached from the Russian army of Bessarabia-rand , assuming for a moment the who'le story not to be a-fiction , it is difficult to suppose that they can have been brought from any other quarter—the movement will greatly facilitate the offensive operations whicii we have been told Omar Pacha is about to commence .
Tho very latest accounts state that—The two armies were owtabliwhed in excellent military poallioiiN . The Froucu army will toko the left in tho uttucku
Paris , Friday Morning . The Moniteur confirms the intelligence of a sortie attempted by the garrison of Sebastopol . " It says , the Charge * d'Affaires of France at Constantinople , -writing on tlie 10 th , informs the Minister of Foreign Affairs , that the captains of the steam transports just arrived from the Crimea state that the besieged had attempted a sortie against our siege works , and that they had been vigorously repulsed .
October 21 , 1854 . ] THE LEADER . 9 S 7
Leader (1850-1860), Oct. 21, 1854, page 987, in the Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition (2008; 2018) ncse2.kdl.kcl.ac.uk/periodicals/l/issues/vm2-ncseproduct2061/page/3/